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The Cyclic Model

The cyclic model is an alternative theory about the origins of the universe, being based around theoretical physics. It speculates how the universe is everlasting and goes through a cycle of events before starting over again. There are many different variations on the cyclic model with the most recent being produced in 2007 called the Baum-Frampton model. This model bases theories upon the existence of phantom energy, a form of dark energy with the equation w less than -1. There is so much that can be learnt about this concept, just as you can learn a lot about the human body from the best bio tutor

The cyclic model was first introduced into the scientific community during the 1930’s by theoretical scientists, including well known scientist Albert Einstein. They considered the possibility that the universe was not one fixed event but a continuous infinite loop of events. These early theories were disproved by Richard C. Tolman and his work on thermodynamics. Tolman used the second law of thermodynamics; that entropy of a system not in balance will tend to increase over time, this means that the next universe would last longer than the current one we are in. This means that as you looked back over previous universes they would survive over a shorter time period ultimately ending up where there is a ‘big bang’ like event, which meant it was not replacing the widely accepted theory.

There are currently two models that have no strong disproving evidence, they are the Steinhardt-Turok model and the Baum-Frampton Model. They explain some flaws in the big bang theory but do have areas of concern where more research is necessary.

The Steinhardt-Turok model was created from a collaboration of Paul Steinhardt from Princeton University and Neil Turok of Cambridge University. Their theory is based upon brane cosmology, the idea that our visible universe is constrained to a brane; an object in higher-dimensional space, inside a higher-dimension or otherwise known as the bulk.

Steinhardt and Turoks model theorizes that the universe was created by two branes colliding in the bulk. This collision causes a big crunch immediately followed by a big bang causing the formation of the next universe. According to the theory our visible universe was created in the most recent collision and some time in the future will stop expanding and start to detract before a big crunch occurs and then a big bang when the next universe will form.

This model has overcome the problem of thermodynamics because at the beginning of each new universe entropy has to start building up again so there is no long time build up of entropy. There are many flaws in this model, these include the fact that currently we do not know of the existence of branes or how they would react in a collision or in the bulk. Also the theory bases many of it crucial ideas on string theory which in itself is a controversial topic among scientists.

Another theory, the Braum-Frampton model, bases itself on the fact that ww is the state of dark energy in the universe. The main backbone behind this model is that it theorises that one trillion-trillionth before the big rip would occur an anomaly would occur due to the dark energy causing a small part of our universe to be left after the big rip; this space would contain nothing but dark energy.

This idea allows the model to overcome many of the downfalls of previous models, avoiding things like difficulties with the contraction of matter, matter going through phase transitions, and by overcoming these difficulties the second law of thermodynamics is not broken by a premature bounce.

In the near future the plank satellite will be launched into space to measure w in 2008, this mission will enable the Braum-Frampton model to progress further and allow it further proofs and it may also disprove the theory as it may discover that w is in fact larger than -1 in which case the Braum-Frampton model will be negligible as it does not work if w is greater than -1.

The main aim for the future for this area of theoretical cosmological would be to prove a cyclic model, but this goal is a long time off and may never be reachable if other theories such as the big bang are ultimately proved. A more attainable goal is to find proof that a cyclic model is possible and have it to a degree where it is on par with current evidence for the big bang theory.

McWane Science Center: Museum Review

My memories of the McWane Science Center, a children’s museum in downtown Birmingham, Alabama, go back thirteen years. As an Alabama native, I fondly recall several field trips and family outings to the McWane Center. The museum even holds the title as my first date destination– I went there during 7th grade with my nerdy middle-school “boyfriend.”

I couldn’t deprive my daughter, a bright and perky three-year-old, of the opportunity to check out the best museum that Alabama has to offer. The trip to the McWane Centre was everything I’d hoped for and more. We arrived at the Center at around 10 a.m. and stayed until the staff locked the doors. I have never experienced such a fun and mutually satisfying field trip with my daughter. Now that I provide primary school science private tuition I know how beneficial these science museums are for kids. I would recommend this to all the teacher and tutors that are out there to take their kids to McWane Science Center.

Not Just for Kids

We met up with an old friend of mine at the McWane Science Center, and she and I agreed that the museum is certainly not just for kids. In fact, we grown-ups could have enjoyed the entire trip there without our little preschool-aged chaperone. Many of the science and entertainment exhibits were fascinating enough to keep the grown-ups entertained along the way. Who’s to say that roller coaster simulations, optical illusions, and shark-petting displays are only fun for kids?

A Tremendous Variety

The McWane Center is, by far, the largest and most diverse children’s museum I have ever set foot inside. From the basement floor, which houses an elaborate ocean-themed exhibit, to the displays showing dinosaurs, native birds, live river-fish, technological marvels, science-based games, optical illusions, ecological issues, and more, there was an endless supply of fun for kids and adults of all ages. Several large areas were built with a specific dedication to a younger audience. I could spend every day of the week at the McWane Center and still find new things to explore and to show my daughter.

The IMAX Theater

The IMAX theater at the McWane Science Center is one of its most popular attractions, so it, in some ways, deserves an entry of its own. The theater itself is a marvel; its visual effect and sound systems were stunning. Due to a low audience volume that day, my friend, daughter and I had the movie all to ourselves and were able to enjoy it in full. The movie itself, “Wild Ocean,” was a disappointment. It was visually appealing and had a hauntingly beautiful soundtrack, but it lacked any tangible or surprising information.

My Daughter’s Own Review

Sometimes, a grown-up’s opinion of a destination for children just won’t cut it. If you need to know my daughter’s opinion– she asked to go back to the “McQueen Center” the entire way home. Two hours afterward, she continuously recounted her trip and asked if we could go back. When I explained that they were closed, her lip rolled out and she struggled to restrain her tears before falling asleep in my arms. In her own words:

“Hey Mama, I want to go back to the McQueen Center if your friend, Kitty, again. We got to see that big movie with dolphins, and they had a ball machine. I put a purple ball in a fountain to make it float. They had dinosaurs that were carnivores but not at all scary, and a wind machine that was like WHOOOSH and a bed of nails and a giant carrot. I want to go back to the McQueen Center, please. Please, please. Please. Hey Mama, can we please go back to the McQueen Center, please please please please?”

Out of the mouths of babes. I highly recommend the McWane Center museum to any family with children. For a surprisingly low cost of admission, you can give your family a thrilling and educational day out.